Earth Notes: EGC: HaaS Lite WP1 D15 Customer Research

Updated 2024-03-30 15:14 GMT.
By Damon Hart-Davis ORCID logo.
EGC Work Package 1: Deliverable 15: Customer Research, Public Report.
people meeting orig

D15: Customer (Social) Research, Public Report

Summary and introduction

Deliverable 15, part of Work Package 1.

It is difficult to engage people in big enough, persistent energy savings.

The essence of this research strand is to uncover messaging and mechanisms that reliably work for normal busy human beings, at home, to engage them in those energy savings and to ensure that those energy savings stick.

Typically people just don't make many of the (energy) savings that they could, even when easy and quick and one-off with recurring significant benefits. So the 'customer'/'social'/'human' strand is essential for a sustainable HaaS business model.

The overall aim of the HaaS Lite project is to find ways to make heating more efficient (in carbon and cost terms) and more pleasant for users. It aims to find schemes that will engage users in the first place (eg the large portion of the population that have never switched energy suppliers despite the ease and immediate savings for most in doing so, or short-term tenants that the Green Deal was meant to help but was too heavyweight for), and that will keep them engaged. HaaS needs to overcome the apathy that normally bedevils measures which are not purely technical and automated. These schemes have to be profitable, and not fall victim to Jevons' paradox [Jevons].

As noted in [SMFB-2014]:

... if smart metering is to effectively reduce energy consumption there is a clear need to develop and test innovative new feedback devices that have been designed with user engagement in mind.

HaaS Lite is attempting to identify or create such 'devices', physical and behavioural, tied to a financially viable payback.

Apathy, Nudges, Gamification

The ulterior motive of HaaS Lite is to reduce climate change, by reducing carbon emissions from domestic space heating.

This 'green' message is directly toxic to a significant group of people who may see it as attack on personal freedoms. A reasonable and more universally-acceptable proxy, at least in the UK, is money-saving. Or similarly, but not exactly equivalently, avoiding waste. Both are well correlated with carbon emission saving.

However, many people can't be bothered even with something as simple as energy supplier switching, which for most UK householders would be a matter of minutes' work and with recurring and sizeable savings.

Ofgem claims that comparing and switching supplier or energy tariff can make a big difference to your gas and electricity bills — with annual savings of around £300 available [OfgemSw]. Also, at the end of 2015 GoCompare's research claimed that 2.5m (15% of) homeowners have NEVER switched energy supplier and are potentially missing out on collective savings of £728m [GoComp2015].

The tabloid view of the world is that not only is the whole thing probably a con (unless it makes your house's value go up), but also user apathy is insurmountable from feckless youth to grumpy old men.

A slightly more sinister, indeed Machiavellian, view of the world, still with traction in high places in the UK for example, is the notion that with the right 'nudges' (almost like subliminal marketing) you can get people to do the right thing. Project CHARM explicitly tested this notion for domestic energy efficiency [CHARM] along with social norms.

Another significant hope is that 'gamification', ie turning everything into a game to harness competitive instincts, will somehow move the punter past apathy into informed engagement and indefinite commitment. In any case people seem fascinated by their digital traces, and that may be a way of engaging them [CHARM].

None of these turn out to be invincible foe nor magic pixie dust, and to meet our aims we have to deal with a fair amount of illogicality and second- or third- order effects, of which Machiavelli might indeed be proud.

Issues Considered in More Depth

Some of the key issues found in existing research and experience are explored here; please see the sources/links for more details.

Market segmentation: is it needed and who should be targeted?

Ultimately, if carbon-reduction targets are to be met, virtually everyone (eg in the UK) will need to improve their home heating efficiency, and all current utilities will need to materially decouple profits from carbon emissions.

However, there are some sectors of the market that have been poorly served by existing measures, eg non-owners often unable to make significant building fabric changes and needing a fast payback of a year or so to make improvement efforts worthwhile financially.

Are consumers motivated environmentally?

This depends in part on the demographic being addressed though there is some common ground: while there are a few areas where there are similarities in ethical behaviour among a broad range of consumers, in the majority of cases there is no silver bullet; companies need to take a nuanced and tailored approach. [EcoConsum].

This implies that segmentation will be needed to reach/engage a broad section of end users who could use HaaS and save energy, even to achieve similar outcomes across those segments.

Focus on private renters as exemplars

This is especially true of the (growing, soon to reach 25% of the UK market) private rental sector, where typical tenancies are one year or so, and the "split incentives" issue is writ large. (The landlord pays for improvements, and the tenant reaps the rewards with reduced bills, but is often oblivious to energy performance when selecting a property, thus no rent hike is possible to recover the landlord's expenditure.)

A scheme robust enough to work in this segment has a good chance of working in much of the rest of the market, where end users have more money and time and experience, and more commitment to a property too for example.

That is why HaaS Lite has a focus on this segment.

Are people rational: Homo economicus or not?

No [HomoE], at least not economically, and similarly not in other areas.

It was reported at the TEDDINET-Ctech Symposium [TEDCtech] that when giving savings feedback to office workers, smaller-valued numbers representing the same level of energy saving had reduced impact (eg displaying energy use in £ rather than kgCO2 was less effective). But having normalised the numbers to (say) equivalent 'units' then cost/money displays were more effective/motivational than CO2. So, humans are not rational or not numerate, or maybe just not holding conversion factors in their heads. And here at least money seems to beat carbon as a motivator.

Energy savings also tend to have a prolonged effect spread over years, and humans discount future benefits more heavily than is numerically justified. One bird in the hand now is far preferred to two birds in the hand in a year's time, instinctively, whatever the interest rates and risks are.

Are avoiding waste and saving money equivalent?

Benjamin Franklin is reported to have said that:

A penny saved is a penny earned.

But "loss aversion" refers to people's tendency to prefer avoiding losses to acquiring equivalent gains: "It's better to not lose $5 than to find $5" [LossAv].

People are also more motivated by frugality (avoiding waste) than thrift [CHARM].

And there are many studies where if a complex piece of arithmetic is framed instead as a social situation, eg including notions of fairness, accurate or near optimal solutions are often quickly arrived at.

The important point here is that mathematically equivalent views of efficiency, comfort, change, social benefits, etc, may not be at all equivalent in terms of how they resonate with people going about their daily lives and responding instinctively. Framing is important.

Do people know what effective measures are (eg light vs heat)?

In the TEDDINET-Ctech Symposium [TEDCtech], both the i-Stute and APERIO projects noted that people's lack of knowledge and/or 'wrong' folk physics (AKA 'energy myths' [EON2017]) meant that for example, they concentrated on lighting and electric appliances as 'energy' and did not understand heat as important.

Thus we cannot expect people to just know the important things to do to save energy but not (say) risk excess humidity and condensation, and indeed personally at home we find these issues complex. So there will need to be clear but non-annoying steers to get these right. Eg choosing when and how and how long to ventilate right is one key skill with some first- and second- order (ie obvious and subtle) elements [NEA-HIVE].

Anecdotally I know of one couple that always ran their dishwasher in 'eco' mode to save energy and be ecologically responsible, until it gunged up and died, putting them off. Manufacturers of dishwashers (and washing machines) now describe a weekly(-ish) hot wash as a 'maintenance cycle' to get the bulk of the energy savings and keep the machine healthy.

Such subtle and second-order rules of the road may have to be part of the regular engagement and feedback for a system that is going to work long-term.

Do people 'do their bit' and stop too soon? Negative spillover

What is "good enough"?

Don't be distracted by the myth that 'every little helps'. If everyone does a little, we'll achieve only a little. - David MacKay

The comfortable perception that global environmental challenges can be met through marginal lifestyle changes no longer bears scrutiny. The cumulative impact of large numbers of individuals making marginal improvements in their environmental impact will be a marginal collective improvement in environmental impact.

Since most people do easy and cheap things for the environment before difficult and expensive things (Diekmann & Preisendörfer, 1998; Kaiser, 1998), they may in practice justify not doing the more difficult and costly – and usually more important – things ... [SimplePainless]

Discussing this report [WhatCanYouDo] discusses the 'spillover' effect, including:

WWF's report offers an examination of this "spillover" effect, exploring the potential for one small pro-environmental behaviour to lead to another (positive spillover) as well as the potential for a pro-environmental behavior to have the opposite effect, discouraging a person from adopting other pro-environmental behaviours (negative spillover).

The effect is real, and if HaaS is going to achieve its secret carbon-cutting goals, it must be done in a way that avoids negative spillover if possible.

Can apathy be overcome?

Initially, and to persist savings.

Do nudges work?

Does gamification fix everything?

Gamification may only engage a small subset of users, eg young males, and may not improve outcomes even amongst them, so is not a panacea [CHARM].

How long do automated and non-automated measures typically last?

The challenges lie not just in getting people to start saving energy, but in persisting those savings, especially non-automated measures, once the initial novelty has worn off.

Asymmetric messaging may also be necessary to avoid making the people who happen to be doing best from thinking that they are working too hard and slacking off! [AsymMsg]

Unfortunately, Persistence has been rarely measured. [dougherty2015behavioral] [ehrhardt-martinez2011persistence] [gold2019efficiency] [hoffman2015savings] [liebe2021persistent] [skumatz2012makes] [whitsett2013persistence]

Fully-automated 'technical' measures reportedly last ~10 years, whereas those requiring continuing human intervention maybe 4 years [???]. (Programmes measuring the persistence of manual measures tend to stop recording data after a year, which distorts the results to look like manual measures fail immediately after; the 4-year value is an inference.)

Once people have engaged in principle, is is helpful to actively guide them to make the best savings that they will be comfortable with [EcoCoach]. It is also to provide appropriate feedback and/or incentives to reach and maintain the desired saving. The agency, ie sense of control, that eco-coaching brings, encourages continued experimentation (important because needs will evolve over time). This agency, and the sense that settings were tailored to their personal needs and habits, also seems to leave users more committed to sticking with the level of comfort vs savings they have selected.

This agency, evolution and commitment combination is likely to be key to HaaS success.

Effective Useful Life (EUL)

Whatever measures we employ with HaaS, our target should be something like a physical equipment life of ~10 years (to keep costs down, and avoid adding WEEE - waste electronics - to landfill unnecessarily), and we should aim to match that with the human element.

A ~10 year life may also match the tenor of investments that green YieldCos may like, but if not then some securitisation slicing and dicing may be possible.

We should aim to monitor, verify and report on these EUL measures [SERA-2009]; many types of investors in such schemes would likely want that tracking. Doing this well may to prove to be where some new ground is broken.

Privacy issues, personal data and security: smart metering

We feel that it is important to give users control over data generated by their activities.

We also understand that some users may be happy to trade some personal data for, for example, improved energy saving by allowing crunching of their usage patterns in the cloud combined with weather forecasts.

We also take security seriously, not wishing people to be spied on nor have their house messed around with by bored teens in Moscow or Croydon.

These two also speak to graceful degradation to completely unaffected operation if a user's Internet connection goes down.

Devices such as Nest routinely export data from the house, and similar devices have been known to fail when the home Internet does. Some existing heating controls leave users very open to having huge bills run up and systems broken remotely.

One of the attractions to us of smart metering is the ability to track energy usage (and thus savings) locally, and only upload minimal summaries to maximise privacy where required.

We should try to accurately gauge home energy users' views on these topics, as they may steer or constrain the flavours of HaaS system that can be put together. For example, competitive gamification elements maybe easy for those who already share details of every meal and trip away from home on Facebook; less so for the paranoid banker.

Decoupling: Can We Cut Carbon and Grow Revenue?

As discussed above, OpenTRV's ulterior motive is to achieve cuts at scale in domestic carbon footprint, while improving health and comfort, and providing an attractive and viable business model for utilities and suppliers of saving tech such as OpenTRV. Does this look possible?


HaaS Lite does indeed look possible from this 'customer'/'social' strand point of view, but the subtleties and layers of user messaging and interaction to get right may be harder than expected for a single-year project. Indeed this seems as if it will the most tricky of the three strands, and the hardest to objectively measure.

Agency, evolution and commitment are highly likely to be key.


  • [Afridi2020] 2020-04-27 (Dubai) Temperature linked to at-home productivity: 24°C is the optimal standard temperature for human occupancy and energy efficiency. A slightly cooler temperature of 22°C effectively aids the highest level of work productivity (for men and children). Women have better mental agility at higher temperatures (26°C). Uninterrupted sleep is better achieved in cooler temperatures (20°C). Exercise is also more effective at cooler temperatures (20°C--21°C).
  • [AR2017] 2017-10-22 Why nudge theory works until a kick in the backside is needed: The past decade has demonstrated when 'choice architecture' in politics can succeed and when it doesn't work.
  • [AsymMsg] 2010-06-21 Finding the 'Weapons' of Persuasion to Save Energy: Homes using less, however, began to let their use creep up toward the average. Messaging that works: The majority of your neighbors are undertaking energy saving actions every day.
  • [Bath2017] 2017-09-18 Smart meters need a rapid rethink: This design is the first to use simple language to communicate with home owners about their energy usage. Unlike any IHD on the market, it contains a thermal model of the building and its occupants, enabling it to make useful and accurate recommendations to home owners when they are demonstrating poor energy usage. For example, if a home owner's central heating stayed on until 10am each day despite the house being unoccupied by 8am, the device would calculate the amount of money being wasted and suggest the home owner adjust their heating clock to 8am. Instead of just relying on monetary waste as a motivational factor, the system can also "speak" in non-monetary units such as loss of tree cover, tons of carbon or cost to society – thus aligning itself to differently motivated households.
  • [BBCL2020steam] 2020-08-05 Your Old Radiator Is a Pandemic-Fighting Weapon: Health officials thought (correctly) that fresh air would ward off airborne diseases; then as now, cities rushed to move activities outdoors, from schools to courtrooms. When winter came, the need for fresh air didn't abate. According to Holohan's research, the Board of Health in New York City ordered that windows should remain open to provide ventilation, even in cold weather. In response, engineers began devising heating systems with this extreme use case in mind. Steam heating and radiators were designed to heat buildings on the coldest day of the year with all the windows open.
  • [BLP2018] 2018-07-24 Majority of Brits want their new home to be environmentally sustainable: The majority (78%) of people consider the environmentally sustainable performance of a building important when choosing a new home, BLP Insurance has found. ... When asked about environmentally sustainable features, almost a quarter ranked energy efficient heating and hot water systems as their top priority if they were choosing a new home, followed by double glazing and solar panels.
  • [CHARM] 2013-02-27 A Note On Project CHARM Conference 2013-02-27
  • [CN2018] Energy retail 2.0: How and why 'energy as a service' is changing the game: Where pay as you go credit agreements used to see customers pay for the texts they sent and the minutes they spent, contract agreements have taken hold whereby a fixed bill is paid covering a set amount of texts, minutes and data with added payments for those that go over their agreed limits. ... If you are a customer and you have the ability to flex, you are unlikely to want to engage in the complexity of the different flexibility services that are offered by the market, but you would like to benefit from them. That therefore means that the energy as a service model enables that to happen as part of a general comfort sale transaction, whereas if you're selling someone kilowatt hours then it becomes two separate bits - the energy [being bought] and the flexibility offering.
  • [CTSE2017] 2017-08 The employers' guide to smart meters and energy efficiency awareness: sample finding The [De Montfort University Leicester] study found that visual imagery that gives emotional cues can be more effective than words or numbers in getting building users to change their behaviour. The use of happy and sad faces, which is more common and easier to replicate, relies on the same principles.
  • [DBEIS-SMNDEL] 2017-11-27 DBEIS Smart metering in non-domestic premises: early research findings.
  • [DECC-REE] 2014 How heating controls affect domestic energy demand: a rapid evidence assessment: ... there is not a consistent and reliable body of evidence on the capacity of heating control technology to contribute to energy savings. Little evidence exists on the role of consumer behaviour with regards to heating controls, yet some research does point to the poor usability of heating controls and that use is often driven by thermal comfort rather than saving energy. The report also highlights that heating controls are typically replaced with boilers, which is 5% per year. Secondary analysis of EFUS data found that 49% of households have a full set of heating controls including a central timer, thermostatic radiator valves and room thermostats.
  • [DRAX2018] 2018-07-27 16.5 degrees [C] is the Goldilocks temperature for the Brits – not hot enough for air-con, not [cold enough] to put the heating on.
  • [Duckworth] 2019-01-13 AL Duckworth et al Beyond Willpower: Strategies for Reducing Failures of Self-Control: ...evidence from both psychological science and economics recommends psychologically informed policies for reducing failures of self-control. Also see These 6 self-control tips work better than willpower.
  • [EcoCoach] 2016-09-12 How does eco-coaching help to save energy? Assessing a recommendation system for energy-efficient thermostat scheduling ... eco-coaching: giving personalized suggestions for specific actions that would reduce wasted energy. ... Our study shows that eco-coaching accomplished four things. First, it made it easier for users to implement an effective thermostat schedule. Second, it supported user agency in negotiating energy savings and comfort goals. Third, it facilitated learning different scheduling strategies as well as weighing different options. Finally, it challenged users' beliefs about how well they were doing. These outcomes, in turn, were successful in getting users to employ and experiment with more efficient setback strategies. ... [] found that participants perceived proactive suggestions to be more useful than feedback messages, although they did not necessarily follow the suggestions. ... Having a choice provided sense of control in negotiating energy savings and comfort goals. ... Eco-feedforward supported decision-making by presenting quantified estimates of future savings.
  • [EcoConsum] 2011-08-12 What motivates consumers to make ethically conscious decisions? Only 47% of UK adults believe that individual efforts to limit their own impact on climate change are worthwhile, although this rises to 70% of readers and users of the Guardian and Observer, who tend to be more eco-conscious. ... What the research shows clearly is that while there are a few areas where there are similarities in ethical behaviour among a broad range of consumers, in the majority of cases there is no silver bullet; companies need to take a nuanced and tailored approach.
  • [EDOP] Developing English domestic occupancy profiles A systematic literature review also established that the occupancy categories most frequently used in UK building simulation are (a) a family with dependent children where the parents work full time; and (b) a retired elderly couple who spend most of their time indoors. The interview sample from the English Housing Survey 2014–15 was used to map household typologies. Results show that categories (a) and (b) combined amount to only 19% of England's households, which suggest models are over-reliant on these groups. Considering this result, the paper develops occupancy patterns for England derived from 2015 UK Time Use Survey diaries for each household typology previously identified.
  • [EGCIntro] Energy Game Changer: HaaS Lite Introduction.
  • [EON2017] 2017-07-04 Research conducted by energy company E.ON has found that Almost three quarters of UK homeowners have made their homes smarter and "... a third of UK homeowners plan to introduce more smart technologies into their homes, citing financial savings, energy efficiency and time saving as key drivers."
  • [EUST2017] Eurostat 2017 Greenhouse gas emission statistics - carbon footprints: The EU's total carbon footprint was equal to 7.2 tonnes of CO2 per person in 2017 ... In 2017, final consumption of electricity, gas, steam and air-conditioning had the biggest carbon footprint (0.77 tonnes of CO2/person) in the EU.
  • [Fell2018] In the heat of the night: ... how findings from a study I was involved in suggest a challenge for meeting morning peaks in heat demand in winter if we electrify heating in the UK: ... during really cold periods, the difference in gas demand between 5am and 8am on weekdays can be really big (up to 116 GW). ... It seems that people who didn't experience any problems were naturally containing the pre-heating to areas of the house that didn't bother them overnight, such as the living room (when they were in the bedroom). Those that did have problems had no such separation from the pre-heating.
  • [FPAD2018] Fuel Poverty Awareness Day.
  • [Gap2017] van den Brom et al 2017 Performance gaps in energy consumption: household groups and building characteristics: ... low-income households consume more gas per m^2 (space heating and hot water) than households with a high income for all types of housing. Furthermore, the performance gap is caused not only by the occupant but also by the assumed building characteristics.
  • [GoComp2015] 2015-11-06 claimed that 2.5m (15% of) homeowners have NEVER switched energy supplier and are potentially missing out on collective savings of £728m, 53% of homeowners haven't changed energy supplier for over three years, 27% of those surveyed think that it's too much hassle to change provider.
  • [GoComp2018] 2018-05-01 From good broadband to bath tubs: 20 features that could sell your home: ... insurance comparison website Gocompare Home Insurance has compiled a list that shows the top 20 features for UK home-buyers ... 1 Central Heating (82%), 2 Double glazing, 3 Secure Doors and windows, ... 9 A reliable, clear mobile phone signal, 10 A good energy efficiency rating (52%) ... 15 Cavity wall insulation ... 20 A new boiler or central heating system (37%) ... Good broadband and mobile signal strength have climbed the furthest on the list, along with a good energy efficiency rating.
  • [Har17] Hargreaves et al Feb 2017 Learning to live in a smart home: Smart homes promise to significantly enhance domestic comfort, convenience, security and leisure whilst simultaneously reducing energy use through optimized home energy management. Their ability to achieve these multiple aims rests fundamentally on how they are used by householders, yet very little is currently known about this topic. The few studies that have explored the use of smart homes have tended to focus on special-interest groups and be quite short-term. ... there is little evidence that smart home technologies will generate substantial energy savings ...
  • [HomoE] Homo Economicus is a term that describes the rational human being assumed by some economists when deriving, explaining and verifying theories and models. Homo economicus, or economic human, is the figurative human being characterized by the infinite ability to make rational decisions. Certain economic models have traditionally relied on the assumption that humans are rational and will attempt to maximize their utility for both monetary and non-monetary gains. Modern behavioral economists and neuroeconomists, however, have demonstrated that human beings are, in fact, not rational in their decision making...
  • [Jevons] Jevons paradox: ... When technological progress increases the efficiency with which a resource is used (reducing the amount necessary for any one use), but the rate of consumption of that resource rises because of increasing demand.
  • [Kane] Data-driven Identification of Occupant Thermostat-Behavior Dynamics: Building occupant behavior drives significant differences in building energy use, even in automated buildings. Users' distrust in the automation causes them to override settings. This results in responses that fail to satisfy both the occupants' and/or the building automation's objectives. ... on average, a 2°F override will occur after ~30 mins. and an 8°F override will occur in only ~15 mins...
  • [LossAv] Loss aversion also see for example Anomalies: The Endowment Effect, Loss Aversion, and Status Quo Bias.
  • [MF2021] 2021-02-04 The History of Heat-as-a-Service for Promoting Domestic Demand- Side Flexibility: Lessons from the case of Budget Warmth: I present the case of Budget Warmth, a HaaS tariff offered commercially in Great Britain in the 1980s. I suggest reasons for its failure (despite early enthusiasm), including tensions between occupant expectations and operators' commercial interests, and lack of incentives to provide flexibility within the system as whole. I then consider the extent to which these challenges exist for HaaS offerings today. ... The Budget Warmth tariff was introduced in 1985/86. It was targeted at low-income, elderly customers and promised to provide them with at least one warm room at all times (between October and April/May). As part of the offer, one or more electric storage heaters would be installed in their home, controllable remotely via the radio teleswitch by the local energy board (the regional agencies responsible for supplying energy to customers at the time). The heater(s) would be charged overnight for long enough to ensure sufficient heating during the following day (with the possibility of an afternoon top-up if necessary), based on weather forecasts. The cost of the equipment and anticipated electricity use was spread evenly in weekly charges throughout the year. The electricity used by the heaters was unmetered, meaning that all fees were based on estimates of the amount of electricity input that would be required.
  • [MSE2017] 2017-08-22 MoneySavingExpert poll on What puts you off / frustrates you about switching energy?: 23% Firms I've not heard of come cheapest – don't know if they're any good though ~33% said None of the above, switching is easy.
  • [ND-NEED] The non-domestic National Energy Efficiency Data-Framework.
  • [NEA-HIVE] 2017-07-01 Video: avoid damp and condensation (with BSL signing): Think HIVE: Heating, Insulation, Ventilation, Excess Moisture.
  • [NEED] National Energy Efficiency Data-Framework, which includes ND-NEED for the non-domestic sector.
  • [NF35] Monahan, S. and Gemmell, A, 2010, How occupants behave and interact with their homes: the impact on energy use, comfort, control and satisfaction.
  • [NF38] Monahan, S. and Gemmell, A, 2011, The impact of occupant behaviour and use of controls on domestic energy use: Even in dwellings that have achieved specific standards energy consumption may be dramatically different depending on the occupants' energy-use behaviour, their lifestyle and any extensions or alterations they make to the house. ... Research suggests that, in general, a new type of behaviour formed over a three-month period or longer, appears to be likely to endure, although continued feedback is necessary to help maintain the change. ... Research suggests that controls should be easy to understand and provide instant, tangible feedback so that occupants know that the system has operated. They should also be located as close to the point of need as possible and have sufficient fine control to give the necessary level of adjustment. There is a need to develop control systems that allow effective zoning of a dwelling, although this needs to be coupled with educating occupants on the need to close doors in winter to prevent bedrooms becoming too warm and living rooms too cool. ... Consumers do not appear to want futuristic or revolutionary homes but prefer ones which are reliable extensions of what is already familiar.
  • [Nich2018] Consumer demand for time of use electricity tariffs: A systematized review of the empirical evidence: (from Tweet) Will consumers adopt time of use energy tariffs? Our review of 27 studies shows it depends how you ask the question. When surveyed, 36% say they'll sign up if given the chance. Just 7% of those offered actual TOU tariffs sign up.
  • [NHF2017] National Housing Federation Annual Conference Exhibitions (2017).
  • [OfgemSw] Ofgem claims that comparing and switching supplier or energy tariff can make a big difference to your gas and electricity bills — with annual savings of around £300 available.
  • [PayPerLux] This is the future for business "Philips is already selling light as a service — where customers pay for the performance of lumens, measures of light output, rather than the physical hardware of a light bulb or light fitting. The company's 'pay per lux' solution is generating significant energy savings for customers such as the National Union of Students (NUS) and the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA)."
  • [Poor2017] 2017-11-20 Poortinga et al Social and health outcomes following upgrades to a national housing standard: a multilevel analysis of a five-wave repeated cross-sectional survey: The installation of the majority of individual housing measures (new windows and doors; boilers; kitchens; bathrooms; electrics; loft insulation; and cavity/external wall insulation) were associated with improvements in several social (housing suitability, satisfaction, and quality; thermal comfort and household finances) and health (mental, respiratory and general health) outcomes; and analyses showed relationships between the number of measures installed and the total amount invested on the one hand and the social and health outcomes on the other. There were however a few exceptions. Most notably, the installation of cavity wall insulation was associated with poorer health outcomes, and did not lead to better social outcomes. Also, no association was found between the number of measures installed and respiratory health. ... However, there may be risks associated with specific measures; and more attention is needed for mechanical ventilation when upgrading energy efficiency of houses through fabric work.
  • [PWPR] 2017-07-14 Number of rented homes in UK private rented sector has more than doubled since 1990s ... The latest English Housing Survey, published annually by the Department of Communities and Local Government (DCLG), also shows that more younger people are renting as are more families. ... The proportion of those aged 25 to 34 who lived in the private rented sector increased from 24% in 2005/2006 to 46% in 2015/2016. ... While the energy efficiency and quality of the private rented sector has improved, standards lag behind the social rented sector ...
  • [SEGB-2017] Survey: Smart meter users maintain enthusiasm for saving energy: those who have had smart meter for more than two years are more likely to understand how to save energy around the home.
  • [SERA-2009] Effective Useful Life (EUL) Evaluation Protocol: "One of the most important evaluation issues is how long energy savings are expected to last (persist) once an energy efficiency measure has been installed. The Effective Useful Life (EUL) Evaluation Protocol was developed to address this issue and should be used to establish the period of time over which energy savings will be counted or credited for all measures that have claimed savings." (Possibly derived from this 2006 document.)
  • [SJD2017] Smart technology in the home: time for more clarity: "This infantilizing and deactivating element of the smart home vision can certainly be traced in the literature, implicitly if not explicitly, in the planned shift from human to machine sensing and control, and the development of 'ambient intelligence' that is capable of learning. ... Another well-known example is the 'learning thermostat' ..."
  • [SimplePainless] Simple & painless? - The limitations of spillover in environmental campaigning "Don't be distracted by the myth that 'every little helps'. If everyone does a little, we'll achieve only a little." ... "The comfortable perception that global environmental challenges can be met through marginal lifestyle changes no longer bears scrutiny. The cumulative impact of large numbers of individuals making marginal improvements in their environmental impact will be a marginal collective improvement in environmental impact."
  • [SMFB-2014] The question of energy reduction: The problem(s) with feedback: "... if smart metering is to effectively reduce energy consumption there is a clear need to develop and test innovative new feedback devices that have been designed with user engagement in mind."
  • [SSH2-2019] 2019-03 Brief notes on learnings from the Energy Systems Catapult Smart Systems and Heat (SSH) programme and Smart Energy Services for Low Carbon Heat: Smart Systems and Heat – Phase 2.
  • [Stin2018] Jon Stinson and Julio Bros Williamson: Smarter, better, faster – homes built in a factory benefit everyone: "Such technology does not mean overwhelming users with data on small screens, but presenting actionable information like "bedroom two is at risk of condensation", or "you have spent 25 per cent of your monthly energy budget" or "the air quality in the living room is overheating and reaching unhealthy levels". That is actionable information we can use to improve our comfort and quality of life in real-time."
  • [SWLEN2017] Wasted Energy: how money and carbon dioxide could be saved in schools: "one school reminded to turn the heating to a frost setting over the Xmas / New Year holiday period saved around £500."
  • [Sun17] Sunikka-Blank et al 2017 Harnessing social class, taste and gender for more effective policies: "Middle-class homeowners' retrofit design were part of their social and economic capital and self-expression of taste. These aspirational retrofits were characterized by comfort, conspicuous consumption and do-it-yourself (DIY) activities. Policy should strengthen these 'paths of least resistance' by providing resources to harness the taste-motivated retrofit stream. In contrast, the less-privileged tenant group struggled with the basic interaction with new technologies imposed on them and need more tailor-made paths: simpler heating controls; a simpler manual for some; and practical measures such as burglar-proof natural ventilation."
  • [TEDCtech] A Note On TEDDINET Results Conference 2017.
  • [ThermoCoach] ThermoCoach: Reducing home energy consumption with personalized thermostat recommendations: "Thermostats have the potential for tremendous impact on global energy consumption, but unfortunately they are often not used effectively [or make things worse]. ... ThermoCoach ... improves thermostat usability by giving personalized and actionable recommendations for thermostat use. The system senses human occupancy patterns in a home and emails the household suggested setpoint schedules that can be modified or activated with the click of a button. ... ThermoCoach saves 4.7% more energy than a manually programmable thermostat and 12.4% more energy than the Nest learning thermostat while significantly improving comfort over both ..." ... "ThermoCoach simplifies the act of programming a thermostat by only asking the user to select and/or refine a schedule, rather than to produce one from scratch."
  • [TLE2017] Fuel poverty soars in the sixth richest economy in the world: "In December 2016 ,the BBC reported that 37 per cent of all households would be turning off their heating over the winter as they simply could not afford it." ... "With 2 million people sanctioned in 2016 alone, according to the government's own figures, increasing numbers of people just stopped using the supply altogether, choosing to use sinks as BBQs, candles for light ,and plug sockets in communal stairways to boil kettles."
  • [ToU2015] Is It Time? Consumers and time of use tariffs: Will consumers voluntarily switch to ToU tariffs when available? ... about 30 per cent of people said they were in favour of switching to a static time of use tariff ... The most popular tariff was one involving direct load control (allowing electricity suppliers to cycle people's heating systems off and on in return for a lower flat rate) ... People who are highly financially loss-averse were much less likely to switch ... Telling people they should switch to save money on their energy bills (gain- frame) was no more persuasive than telling people they would lose out on savings if they didn't switch (loss-frame). Telling people about the environmental and energy security implications of time of use tariffs also made no difference to their willingness to switch to the tariff ... these results suggest that the design of the tariff itself may be more important to consumers than the way it is communicated.
  • [Tra2017] Traylor et al 2017 Utilizing modulating-temperature setpoints to save energy and maintain alliesthesia-based comfort: One area with the greatest potential for energy savings in buildings is heating and cooling. However, it is often argued that any energy-saving techniques should not have a negative impact on comfort for inhabitants. This is where the concept of alliesthesia comes into play. This paper examines the impact of utilizing modulating temperature setpoints to take advantage of the pleasure experienced through change. Simulations were conducted using EnergyPlus to explore the potential for energy savings. It was found that savings of up to 5–15% could be achieved by modulating indoor temperatures in cooling applications. However, modulating temperature setpoints resulted in larger energy usage than constant setpoints in heating applications. Results from human comfort experiments show that modulating temperatures could lead to greater thermal pleasure than a constant temperature environment for cooling situations due to a resetting of the thermal comfort achieved when the indoor temperature is decreased...
  • [UKPN2017] Pioneering community project helps cut energy use: The research shows that participants were able to save money by reducing their energy consumption on average by 3.3% a year, which is the equivalent of using 5% less electricity at peak times. It proved that customers who may struggle to pay their energy bills can save just as much as any other demographic once they are engaged in the smart meter rollout.
  • [WhatCanYouDo] Recycling and a meat-free diet won't stop climate change. What can you do?: referring to [SimplePainless] says While our personal small and painless changes fall short on their own, it is assumed that they can "spillover," priming us and encouraging us to do the bigger, harder, more impactful stuff. On the flip side, they may allow us to check off our "did my part" box and blind us to other, larger changes we could make. WWF's report offers an examination of this "spillover" effect, exploring the potential for one small pro-environmental behaviour to lead to another (positive spillover) as well as the potential for a pro-environmental behavior to have the opposite effect, discouraging a person from adopting other pro-environmental behaviours (negative spillover).
  • [WhiC2015] Which Supercomplaint against confusopoly cf DECC's maximum of four energy tariffs.
  • [Wol2017] 2017-10-06 Wolseley resurrects campaign to stamp out 'Zombie Boiler' apocalypse: Worse still, two million [UK homes] are believed to be heated by a boiler so decrepit they have been labelled 'zombie boilers'.


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