Earth Notes: On Website Technicals (2017/10)
2017/10/23: Service Workers
Watching the Chrome Dev Summit 2017 - Livestream (Day 1) suggests that even for a plain HTML site such as this it would be good to help pre-cache and auto-refresh some assets, even to the point of keeping the site usable when off-line, eg on the Tube!
Service workers don't work in all browsers, and need HTTPS, but as long as they are only enhancing a site rather than critical to it, and are not too heavy-weight, this can be all gravy.
The improvement could be something as simple and lightweight as the Network or Cache service worker example, ensuring that a fall-back cache is held for a fixed set of pages and other key small assets (such as the home page and all the updated and popular pages linked from it) when the network becomes a notwork.
"Making a Simple Site Work Offline with ServiceWorker"
and particularly the
version. Notice that the service worker has to be in the root,
but is invoked in this case via
I may play with some of this on my fossil site, which is served over both http and https via Cloudflare, where I can test that nothing breaks with http and that going off-line dosn't stop the site from working when using https. The code looks simple and small to achieve this, and can be created manually.
Although I am able to serve precompressed HTML pages locally to my laptop in as little as 4ms or so, even with a simple tool such as curl (see ttfb.sh) I'm occasionally getting huge spikes up to 200ms+. Eeek.
% sh script/ttfb.sh http://m.earth.org.uk/ 0.039382 % sh script/ttfb.sh http://m.earth.org.uk/ 0.011480 % sh script/ttfb.sh http://m.earth.org.uk/ 0.011241 % sh script/ttfb.sh http://m.earth.org.uk/ 0.036796 % sh script/ttfb.sh http://m.earth.org.uk/ 0.012767 % sh script/ttfb.sh http://m.earth.org.uk/ 0.121798 % sh script/ttfb.sh http://m.earth.org.uk/ 0.009894 % sh script/ttfb.sh http://m.earth.org.uk/ 0.010384
I don't believe that this is anything particularly to do with my Apache configuration now, since (when I am testing) there should be thread free and waiting.
I have installed NGINX to have a little play, and to understand how it works. It is reportedly faster and more memory efficient than Apache.
One aspect that I noticed while looking at configuration, is that NGINX allows log files to be written buffered (and even gzipped) to reduce filesystem activity.
I suspect that my latency spikes arise from contending with other filesystem traffic, so I could aim (for example) to cache key critical path HTML content in memory with Apache and/or tweak how it writes logs.
If log file activity is any part of the problem then I can enable server wide BufferedLogs for Apache, though for 2.2 it is still 'experimental' and would (for example) prevent me viewing activity in real time.
If contending with other filesystem traffic is an issue then there is
which could be set up to hold (say) up to 100kB of objects up to
14600 bytes each (ie that could be sent in the
Some limitations are that this cache is worker process based (so may
be held in multiple copies and continually discarded so with a low hit
rate too), it is shadowing and likely duplicating any filesystem cacheing
done by the OS, and there is no obvious way to keep this cache for
just the key HTML pages let alone just the precompressed ones. For the
mobile site (this directive appears to be per-site) almost all objects
are reasonable candidates for caching however.
To enable cacheing generally (though the default setup parameters are system-wide and not really appropriate):
a2enmod cache a2enmod mem_cache /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
With that global setting there is no visible improvement, nor even with a specific config block for the mobile site instead:
# Set up a small in-memory cache for objects that will fit initcwnd. <IfModule mod_mem_cache.c> CacheEnable mem / MCacheMaxObjectSize 14600 MCacheSize 100 </IfModule>
So I have disabled
mem_cache again for now.
The latency seems much more consistent (and at ~14ms) when tested locally (on the server), possibly because this way the CPU will likely be spun up to max by running the script before Apache is invoked, or possibly because my router (and WiFi) is introducing jitter.
% sh script/ttfb.sh http://m.earth.org.uk/ 0.013 % sh script/ttfb.sh http://m.earth.org.uk/ 0.014 % sh script/ttfb.sh http://m.earth.org.uk/ 0.015 % sh script/ttfb.sh http://m.earth.org.uk/ 0.014 % sh script/ttfb.sh http://m.earth.org.uk/ 0.016 % sh script/ttfb.sh http://m.earth.org.uk/ 0.014 % sh script/ttfb.sh http://m.earth.org.uk/ 0.015 % sh script/ttfb.sh http://m.earth.org.uk/ 0.014
cleancss to further minify CCS after
uncss (etc) step, to trim some remaining redundancy,
from newlines to adjacent residual rules for the same selector. I
have thus squeezed out a few more bytes from the header.
However, there is quite a narrow path to tread to minify more, but
not to remove a few pieces that need to remain, such as fallbacks
for old browsers. To this end I have wrapped up
in a script
with the right properties, and created a makefile for unit testcases
to ensure that the minification does strike the required balance.
Tests for other delicate/fragile functionality can be added to the new makefile in due course.
Amongst all this fun I made some minor design changes, such as having
full-width hero banners narrower than a full container width (ie up to
desktop 800px width) stretch to the container width to look consistent
with other elements. This includes all mobile hero banners, so I bumped
up the ceiling size of auto-generated mobile images from 5kB to 7.5kB to
look better when they are stretched. (And 2.5kB on an image already being
streamed, and still within the
initcwnd, is not a big deal.)
Column/carousel headers and header floats are now selected for a nearer 1:1 aspect ratio, and for not being hugely over-width, for a more consistent appearance, and to avoid inefficient use of bandwidth.)
2017/10/13: uncss Tweaks
"With -n avoid injecting blank lines (and unnecessary newlines)"
uncss maintainers I have resolved to avoid
leaving any trailing newline(s) in my minified CSS files (which is
easy now that I have
cleancss available on the command
line, so no more manual cut-n-paste), and they may be willing to tweak
uncss not to inject a newline after processing each CSS
-n is used.
The first of those (my bit) means that I have been able to remove an extra pipeline process that I was using to remove blank lines.
uncss maintainers want to avoid scope creep and
starting to actively strip out whitespace, which is reasonable.)
The second will save a few more bytes in the header (and thus the critical rendering path) without extra minification work, if it happens.
2017/10/10: Bad Bot
I wasn't quite believing my logs-derived stats, and in particular they claimed that I was seeing much less mobile traffic from real humans than (say) Google claims to send my way from searches alone.
There's one inexplicable type of activity where a varying IP, usually somewhere in China, though occasionally elsewhere else in Asia, downloads the same legitimate page over and over at a moderate rate. The User-Agent is not recognisably a bot, ie looks like a human's browser. The stats' computed mean page download size seemed to be too close to that page's size (with gzip Content-Encoding) as if it might be dominating the calculation.
I wrote a simple filter in the stats to ignore most of the effect of that traffic, and count it as 'bot' traffic, and my bot traffic percentage jumped from about 50% to about 75%, ie that one bot is responsible for 25% of all my traffic! Bah! What a waste. And presumably trying to break in. I may be able to add other defences in due course.
Now mean www and m page transfer size (eg including HTTP header overhead) show as 10745 and 13913 bytes respectively, both within the TCP initcwnd. So able to be delivered to the browser in the first volley without waiting for an ACK, which is good.
Also, mobile page downloads now seem to be about 13% of www, which is lower than I'd like, but closer to what other data sources suggest.
2017/10/09: Mobile vs HTTP/2 Dilemma
It's going to be a while before I can easily update this site to HTTP/2, since basically it requires a complete OS upgrade to support the underlying TLS that HTTP/2 in practice requires.
But articles such as "Mobile Networks May Put HTTP2 On Hold" and "HTTP/2 Performance in Cellular Networks [PDF]" strongly suggest that HTTP/2's placing of all eggs in one TCP connection basket, coupled with the lossy nature of cellular/mobile, the loss of HTTP/1.1's multiple connections' initial connection windows (initcwnd), and maybe how TCP deals with loss (still largely assuming it to indicate congestion), makes it perform worse than venerable HTTP/1.1 for mobile (especially unencrypted). TLS adds lots of latency that HTTP/2 doesn't fully undo, and that's what really matters for mobile performance it seems: "More Bandwidth Doesn’t Matter (much)".
My current thinking: when I introduce HTTPS I will make it the
canonical form for desktop, but have plain old plain
text HTTP for mobile as the preferred
(I'll support both for both, without redirects or pinning, to let users
choose; search engines can exercise some policy too.)
In the future, improved TCP congestion and loss management algorithms such as "BBR, the new kid on the TCP block" may help ease the difference in favour of HTTP/2.
2017/10/08: Mobile Usability
I just had a couple more pages show up in the GSC "Mobile Usability" report, dated 2017/10/09 (well, "10/09/17" in what I consider a particularly perverse display format that I am unable to adjust) even though I pre-emptively 'fixed' them a week or more ago and verified them to be 'mobile friendly' with Google's tool then and again now. Very odd that it should take 4 weeks to propagate a stale notification to the GSC UI.
Incidentally, on the mobile site, there seems to be an effective floor of 200ms on "Time spent downloading a page" in GSC with occasional dips below that possibly from G then crawling from (say) Europe rather than the US west coast. Very low download times only seem to be reported when there are very few items downloaded that day. (The average is currently running at 239ms, minimum 86ms.)
I'm now marking the (already-end-of-
async to try to lower its priority (from medium to low
in Chrome) and to ensure that nothing at all blocks waiting for it.
async the script does seem to get loaded later, and
some images sooner, but nothing totally clear, and I fear that this may
break something subtle for some browsers, eg by introducing a timing race.
I've also significantly pushed up the number of threads that Apache (worker)
has waiting to service requests (
MaxClients), for when
browsers open many concurrent connections, possibly amplified by sharding.
This seems to be dealing with cases where one or two connections seemed to
be blocked for hundreds of milliseconds, delaying final rendering. For some
reason this effect seemed more pronounced on slow/mobile connections, which
has been puzzling me. I suspect that although the connections were quickly
accepted by Apache, it was not able to send content on some of them until
others had completed. For example for Pingdom, testing from Australia, the
site moves from the top half of all sites to the top 20%. This may also
kill some of the spikes in download time seen by GSC. There is more to life
than just TTFB to optimise for! I will have to keep an eye on memory use on
my little RPi though.
2017/10/01: Rounded Corners
Time to visit the dark side again. Long after the fashion has been and gone, no doubt, I feel that it is time to knock the sharp corners off the hero images in the column display on the front page at least. (Indeed, after a bit of fiddling, I've applied this as a house image style to 'soften' all floats too.)
So I have applied a small amount of
magic, which involved a new CCS class in the base CSS support, and
some tweaking of the wrapper scripts. Yes, it's a little smoother,
at very little increased page weight, maybe ~10s of bytes after
compression, given the removal of most unused CSS by static analysis